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Title Регулювання ринку земель сільськогосподарського призначення: досвід Польщі.
Authors Churylova, Tetiana Mykolaivna
Keywords ринок земель сільськогосподарського призначення
рынок земель сельскохозяйственного назначения
the market of agricultural lands
мораторій на продаж сільськогосподарських земель
мораторий на продажу сельскохозяйственных земель
the moratorium on selling agricultural land
соціальні функції сільського господарства
социальные функции сельского хозяйства
social functions of agriculture
Type Article
Date of Issue 2016
URI http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/48444
Publisher Київський університет права НАН України
License
Citation Чурилова Т. М. Регулювання ринку земель сільськогосподарського призначення: досвід Польщі. / Т. М. Чурилова // Часопис Київського університету права. - 2016. - № 3. - С. 304-309
Abstract Модель ринку земель сільськогосподарського призначення повинна відповідати не лише економічній ефективності та доцільності, а й збереженню соціальних функції села. Аналіз обмежень та заборон на ринку у Франції та Польщі , дає можливість стверджувати, що державне регулювання має бути доволі значним у цій сфері, а продаж відбуватися за правилами, що надійно захищають власного фермера, того хто дійсно працює на землі.
Модель рынка земель сельскохозяйственного назначения должна отвечать не только экономической эффективности и целесообразности, но и сохранению социальных функции села. Анализ ограничений и запретов на рынке во Франции и Польше, дает возможность утверждать, что государственное регулирование должно быть значительным в этой сфере, а продажа происходить по правилам, которые надежно защищают собственного фермера, того кто действительно работает на земле.
In Ukraine, the agricultural reform has been continuing for 30 years. However, strategic goals of the reform weren’t achieved, for example, forming a real owner of the land, socio-economic development of the village, solving the food problem, outputting of Ukrainian agricultural sector at the world level. Indeed, the reform is still far from complete because there is no the agricultural land market and rental relations regulation need substantial improvement. Ukraine's agricultural sector requires transformation today. The experience of developed countries clearly illustrates that rural development is possible in case of increasing the welfare of small and medium producers which live and work exactly in rural areas. The model of agricultural land market should correlate with the agricultural development model where all participants will have equal opportunities and the rural development will be a priority. There is no doubt that the moratorium necessary to be canceled. Personally I completely agreed with A. M. Miroshnichenko said that the absence of such market was a daily violation owner’s rights. In addition, there are some significant questions that need to be answered: is it appropriate during the crisis time for the economy and during the war in the country to open a market of agricultural land; which risks we should expect because of the incomplete inventory of land, filling the land registry, the registry of land rights; will the free market of farmers help rural development? It is hardly possible to answer argumental to these questions (besides such questions are much more). The choice of model land market is closely linked with the ordering of the organizational structure of agriculture according to European standards, In our view, family farms and individual farms should receive the maximum possible support from the state because they not only produce most of the laborious products and also fulfill the necessary public functions. Furthermore, small farms which based on family work is an important source of income for the rural population. In this aspect will be useful to analyze the experience of foreign countries. Poland is closest in spirit and related historically with our country. So, the Polish experience in the market of agricultural land regulation is interesting and useful. Certainly, the experience of land market forming in Poland has its own characteristics because the land there was not nationalized, but priorities of Polish land policy and market characteristics of forming are worth studying for understanding perspectives of Ukraine. The Constitution of Poland stated that the basis of the agricultural system of the state shall be the family farm (Art. 23 of RP Constitution). In accordance with this, state policy in the agricultural sector is based on such position. The Agricultural Property Agency (Agencja Nieruchomości Rolnych - ANR) was created in Poland in 1991, it is performs functions regulation of agricultural land market and execute operations such as leasing, purchase, lease, sale, transfer of control and others. The law was enforsed in the 30 of April 2016, that changed the principles of land turnover in Poland. The main conditions of the law is a five-year moratorium on the sale of public lands, fixing the principle of providing preemptive right to those who work and live in the area. The law also will prevent excessive concentration of land in the hands of one owner and the creation of large industrial farms and will support those who wish to increase farm to 300 hectares. Thus, the law aims to protect farmers and improve agricultural structure in Poland
Appears in Collections: Наукові видання (ННІП)

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