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Title Організаційно-економічні проблеми і перспективи розвитку відновлювальної енергетики у приватних домогосподарствах України
Other Titles Organizational and economic problems and prospects for renewable energy development in private households of Ukraine
Authors Sotnyk, Iryna Mykolaivna  
Keywords відновлювальна енергетика
возобновляемая энергетика
renewable energy
державна підтримка
государственная поддержка
state support
приватне домогосподарство
частное домохозяйство
private household
економічне стимулювання
экономическое стимулирование
economic stimulation
«зелений» тариф
«зеленый» тариф
feed-in tariff
Type Article
Date of Issue 2018
Publisher Луцький національний технічний університет
Citation Сотник, І.М. Організаційно-економічні проблеми і перспективи розвитку відновлювальної енергетики у приватних домогосподарствах України / І.М. Сотник // Економічний форум. - 2018. - № 3. - С. 47-56.
Abstract У статті досліджується стан розвитку відновлювальної енергетики у секторі приватних домогосподарств України протягом 2013-2017 рр. Визначено організаційно-економічні та інші переваги й обмеження розбудови сектору, серед яких основну увагу приділено питанням фінансового забезпечення та економічної доцільності реалізації проектів. Розроблені пропозиції щодо подальшої державної підтримки приватних домогосподарств України з метою їх залучення до виробництва «зеленої» електроенергії.
В статье исследуется состояние развития возобновляемой энергетики в секторе частных домохозяйств Украины в течение 2013-2017 гг. Определены организационно-экономические и другие преимущества, а также ограничения развития сектора, среди которых основное внимание уделено вопросам финансового обеспечения и экономической целесообразности реализации проектов. Разработаны предложения по дальнейшей государственной поддержке частных домохозяйств Украины с целью их привлечения к производству «зеленой» электроэнергии.
The article examines the state of development of renewable energy in Ukrainian private households sector during 2013-2017. It is substantiated the necessity of sector expansion in the context of Ukraine's international commitment to achieve the renewable energy share of 11% in the overall energy consumption of the country by 2020. In connection with this, the influence of feed-in tariff introduction on creation and enlargement of green power capacities in domestic private households is analysed both at national and regional levels. On the national scale, high feed-in tariffs have provided significant increment in green energy facilities in private sector in 2015-2017. While in the first quarter of 2015 there were only 40 domestic households with installed green energy capacity of 0.3 MW, at the end of 2015 there were 244 households with the capacity of 2,218 MW. In 2016 1109 households installed 16,748 MW of renewable energy capacities, and in 2017 3010 households provided green energy capacity of 51,002 MW. Thus, in 2015-2017 the number of households producing green electricity increased by more than 75 times, and the volume of installed capacities grew by more than 170 times. At regional level, Kiev, Dnipropetrovsk and Ternopil regions were the most active in the construction and operation of green power plants by private households as well as in their production of electricity from renewables over the past 3 years. These territories demonstrated high rates of development of the private green energy sector which 2-4 times exceeded the average regional level. With regard to the dynamics of the renewable sector expansion, the author has determined organisational and economic as well as other advantages that have affected the development of the sector. They include a simplified procedure for implementing new green capacities, high rates of feed-in tariff, obligatory purchase of produced green electricity by local electric companies, etc. The main constraints hampering the development of economic agents of this market are identified as legislative limitations of the installed capacities and types of power plants, high initial investments and long payback periods for such projects as well as energy generation instability, which might cause projects unprofitability. It is justified that low incomes and poverty of Ukrainian population do not allow private households neither to accumulate sufficient funds in order to invest in development of small power plants nor to pay high interest on the loans for their construction. These are the main arguments for further expansion of state financial support in the renewable energy sector of the country. Based on the conducted analysis, the author has developed proposals on further state assistance of private households in Ukraine in order to involve them in green electricity production. The suggestions cover introduction of privilege financing mechanisms for the construction of private green power plants in Ukraine such as follows: 1) the inclusion of equipment for solar and wind power plants as an option to the list of measures which are partly financed by the government program of "warm" loans; 2) the launch of the National Energy Efficiency Fund, which is expected to provide funds for renewable energy projects; 3) state support for expansion of energy service contracts for the construction of private solar and wind power plants; 4) introduction of financial compensation for the construction of renewable energy facilities in private households by regional and local authorities; 5) spread of feed-in tariff to green power plants built by associations of co-owners of multi-apartment buildings. Due to further development of renewable energy sector, electricity prices in the state might increase in the future. The reason for this is that higher feed-in tariffs are currently compensated by increasing average prices of electricity produced from both traditional and renewable energy sources. It is substantiated that further expansion of the renewable energy sector in Ukraine within keeping relatively high feed-in tariffs could lead to the deepening of social problems caused by the segregation of population by income level because of green electricity production.
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