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Title Внешнеполитическая программа А.-Ж. дю Плесси де Ришелье и реализация заданий государственного развития Франции в 1620-1640-х годах
Other Titles Foreign-Policy program of A.J. du Plessis de Richelieu and Realization of Tasks of State Development in France 1620-1640th
Зовнішньополітична програма А.-Ж. дю Плессі де Ришельє та реалізація завдань державного розвитку Франції у 1620-1640-х роках
Authors Саранов, С.В.
Keywords Франция
Людовик XIII
внешняя политика
международные отношения
французский абсолютизм
Louis XIII
foreign policy
international relations
French absolutism
Людовік XIII
зовнішня політика
міжнародні відносини
французький абсолютизм
Type Article
Date of Issue 2018
Publisher Сумский государственный университет
Citation Саранов, С.В. Внешнеполитическая программа А.-Ж. дю Плесси де Ришелье и реализация заданий государственного развития Франции в 1620-1640-х годах [Текст] / С.В. Саранов // Сумський історико-архівний журнал. - 2018. - № XXX. - С. 49-61. - DOI:
Abstract В статье в общеисторическом контексте раскрывается реализация внешнеполитической программы первого министра Людовика XIII А.-Ж. дю Плесси де Ришелье. Автор анализиует основные черты внешнеполитической программы кардинала, ее связь с международным положением Франции и результативность с точки зрения развития французского абсолютизма. Внешнеполитическая программа первого министра Людовика XIII базировалась на осознании необходимости решения нескольких внешнеполитических заданий, каждое из которых тесным образом было связано с внутренним развитием Франции. В “Политическом завещании” Ришелье четко анализирует собственные цели и обосновывает их: борьба с австрийскими и испанскими Габсбургами, подавление политических амбиций дворянства, борьба с гугенотами внутри самой Франции. В результате реализации внешнеполитической программы первого министра Франция заняла ведущее положение в континентальной Европе. Это фактически обусловило весь дальнейший путь французского абсолютизма до Французской революции конца XVIII в. Так им образом, кард ин ал Ришелье занимает заметное место в истории Франции Нового времени, так как его политическое наследие вызывает значительный интерес даже в XXI в.
Realization of the foreign-policy program of cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) is examined in the article, her influence on an achievement by France of domination in continental Europe. An author marks that the sources of this program are traced yet at the beginning the XVI century, when opposition of dynasties of Habsburger and Valois got concrete expression. For writing of the article the published papers of cardinal Richelieu, work of the leading French historians were used. An author marks that from the moment of coming to power cardinal of beginning realization of the politics and analyses her forms and methods. Pushing off from the division into periods of development of French absolutism, pulled out by known by a Russian scientist Malov V. N., the author of the article specifies that realization of the foreign-policy program was possible by the offensive of the state on rights for the nationals of king of France. It was inevitable, as reflected the necessity of considerable increase of taxes for France since the open entering into of thirty Years war in 1635. The separate aspects of the foreign-policy program are examined: her pre-conditions, stages, registration of diplomatic traditions and their principles, their results. An author comes to the conclusion, that cardinal Richelieu played a prominent role in history of France, providing possibility of establishment of the French prevailing in continental Europe in the future. An author specifies on actual character of study of foreign policy of France of this period, as even in the epoch of globalization this question presents considerable interest. At the analysis of features of foreign policy of French absolutism of XVII-XVIII it is needed to take into account decision a deposit Richelieu in providing of possibility of her historical realization. It is considered in accordance with the folded historiography tradition that from the moment of entering into Royal advice in 1624 of Richelieu began realization of antihabsbourgs politics. The program of strengthening of international authority of France was base on three principles, wired for sound by Richelieu in the “Political testament”: fight against Austrian and Spanish Habsbourg, suppression of political ambitions of the nobility, counteraction to the huguenots into France. The problem of Austrian and Spanish Habsbourg left roots, at least, in 1521, when Francis I entered into a military conflict with the emperor of the Sacred Roman empire by Carl V. Italian politics of the French dynasty Valois reflected the rivalry of France and empire on Italian earth, following period of civil wars in France 1562-1598 for a time served a pause in this rivalry, however the depth of question remained to extremely sensible for providing external safety of France. The French royal court, center of political love affairs, there were two political “parties”, by virtue of friability and disconnect of the political forces presented in them, only conditional able to be named such. First, “party of pious”(devots), sprouted from heritage of the Catholic league of the XVI century, being negatively adjusted to the huguenots and coming forward for abolition of the Nantes edict of April, 13, 1598, giving freedom of religion (Maria Меdichi, Ann Austrian) to them. On it an union had to follow with a dad and catholic states, that, on the whole, written into interests of the French nobility, searching counteraction to “authoritarianism” of royal power in the person of cardinal. Second, party of “kind frenchmen”(les bons franзais), personified aspiration to attain national interests of France, though pushing off from catholic positions, however rising above interests of separate estates and political groupments. The aim of “kind frenchmen” was politics based on “state interest”(new noblemen, capital officials, members of royal клиентелы, lawyers-members of parliament). On the initial stage coming forward the representative of party “pious”, a cardinal in subsequent did not justify political expectations of mother and wife Louis XIII. 1635 to, participating of France in of thirty Years war carried the “hidden” character, accompanied by secret support and kindling of political forces able to enter the lists of empire. There is a steady point of view in French historiography, that Gustavus Adolf (1594-1632), Swedish monarch, entered into the European conflict from the serve of Richelieu. Due to diplomacy of cardinal during of thirty Years war a concept “the european equilibrium” began to be used for acquittal of behavior of warring parties. Leader of the Swedish foreign policy Аksel Оksencherna (1583-1654) explained in 1633 the Swedish intruding to Germany by only aspiration to “support an equilibrium in all Europe”. Got time the same Richelieu on mobilization of forces and state resources, necessary for the open participating in war since 1635. To this period basic efforts from the side of royal government appeared concentrated on a fight against a huguenot danger, brightly showing up during a siege and falling of La-Rochel during 1627-1628 Rendering support to the protestants abroad, a cardinal repressed them up own country. A cardinal managed the long siege of La-Rochel personally, finally, on November, 1, 1628 royal troops entered the exhausted city force to confess supremacy of royal power. A statemanship required the account of scale of huguenot threat, their supporters were presented in many parts of country, from forms and methods of permission of huguenot question in a long-term plan internal stability of the French kingdom and international prestige of country depended in the eyes of allies of France. These factors urged on the first minister Lui XIII in 1629 in Ale to promote editions of the Nim edict broadly speaking repeating basic maintenance of the Nantes edict 1598 year. A difference consisted in liquidation of containing guarantees political rights for adding to the last. Thus, huguenots appeared deprived political influence, however their religious rights were taken into account. Destruction of La-Rochel, largest port of country and center of sea-born trade, appeared an original historical paradox on a background aspiration of the first minister to become firmly established on a colonial arena. And however Richeliu stands at the sources of colonial politics of France.
У статті в загальноісторичному контексті розкривається реалізація зовнішньополітичної програми першого міністра Людовіка XIII А.-Ж. дю Плессі де Ришельє. Автор аналізує основні риси зовнішньополітичної програми кардинала, її зв’язок з міжнародним положенням Франції та результативність з точки зору розвитку французького абсолютизму. Зовнішньополітична програма першого міністра Людовіка XIII базувалась на усвідомленні необхідності вирішення декількох зовнішньополітичних завдань, кожне з яких тісним чином було пов’язане з внутрішнім розвитком Франції. В “Політичному заповіті” Ришельє чітко аналізує власні цілі та обґрунтовує їх: боротьба з австрійськими та іспанськими Габсбургами, придушення політичних амбіцій дворянства, боротьба з гугенотами всередині самої Франції. За наслідками реалізації зовнішньополітичної програми першого міністра Франція отримала провідні позиції в континентальній Європі. Це фактично обумовило весь подальший шлях французького абсолютизму до Французької революції кінця XVIII ст. Таким чином, кардинал Ришельє посідає визначне місце в історії Франції Нового часу, адже його політичний спадок становить значний інтерес навіть в XXI ст.
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